December 11, 2009

In statistics, the median is the smallest item that is greater than half the values in a set. Statisticians also define statistics such as quartiles, deciles and percentiles that show the value of an item relative to the other items in a set. A function known as select allows us to find the kth smallest item in a set; that is, the smallest item for which k of the items in the set are smaller.

A simple algorithm for select has us first partition the set into two subsets that are respectively smaller and larger than some randomly-chosen item from the set. If the smaller-than set has more than k elements, it must contain the desired element, so search recursively for the desired element in the smaller-than set; otherwise, subtract the size of the smaller-than set k, then search recursively for the desired element in the larger-than set.

Your task is to write a function that implements the selection algorithm. When you are finished, you are welcome to read or run a suggested solution, or to post your solution or discuss the exercise in the comments below.

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