Our third exercise related to the Data Encryption Standard is simpler than the two previous exercises. We will look at Triple DES, cryptographic hashing, and password management.

Triple DES is defined in FIPS 46-3, along with regular DES. Triple DES uses three keys and the formulas CT = EK3(DK2(EK1 PT)) for encryption and PT = DK1(EK2(DK3 CT) for decryption. Triple DES is strongest when all three keys are unique, but is often used with K1 = K3, which is simpler to manage and only somewhat less secure. If K1 = K2 = K3, Triple DES is just the same as regular DES.

FIPS 113 defines cryptographic hashing using DES in CBC block mode. With the input encrypted using an initialization vector of 64 zero-bits, the hash is just the leading n bits of the final block, where 16 ≤ n ≤ 64 and n ≡ 0 (mod 8).

One application of cryptographic hashing converts an ascii plaintext password to a 64-bit key. The hash initializes using the normal zero-vector and is calculated using a single key specific to the application. Then 56 bits are taken from the hash and parity bits are inserted to form a 64-bit key.

Your task is to write Triple DES enciphering and deciphering functions, a cryptographic hash function, and a password-to-key converter. When you are finished, you are welcome to read or run a suggested solution, or to post your own solution or discuss the exercise in the comments below.

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