October 4, 2011
A commented version of the hello world program from the previous page is given below:
+++++ +++++ initialize counter (cell #0) to 10
[ use loop to set the next four cells to 70/100/30/10
> +++++ ++ add 7 to cell #1
> +++++ +++++ add 10 to cell #2
> +++ add 3 to cell #3
> + add 1 to cell #4
<<<< - decrement counter (cell #0)
> ++ . print 'H'
> + . print 'e'
+++++ ++ . print 'l'
. print 'l'
+++ . print 'o'
> ++ . print ' '
<< +++++ +++++ +++++ . print 'W'
> . print 'o'
+++ . print 'r'
----- - . print 'l'
----- --- . print 'd'
> + . print '!'
> . print '\n'
That program comes from the Wikipedia page on brainfuck, as does the rot13 program below; beware that, depending on your operating system and compiler, there may be input buffering issues when running rot13:
-,+[ Read first character and start outer character reading loop
-[ Skip forward if character is 0
>>++++[>++++++++<-] Set up divisor (32) for division loop
(MEMORY LAYOUT: dividend copy remainder divisor quotient zero zero)
<+<-[ Set up dividend (x minus 1) and enter division loop
>+>+>-[>>>] Increase copy and remainder / reduce divisor / Normal case: skip forward
<[[>+<-]>>+>] Special case: move remainder back to divisor and increase quotient
<<<<<- Decrement dividend
] End division loop
]>>>[-]+ End skip loop; zero former divisor and reuse space for a flag
>--[-[<->+++[-]]]<[ Zero that flag unless quotient was 2 or 3; zero quotient; check flag
++++++++++++<[ If flag then set up divisor (13) for second division loop
(MEMORY LAYOUT: zero copy dividend divisor remainder quotient zero zero)
>-[>+>>] Reduce divisor; Normal case: increase remainder
>[+[<+>-]>+>>] Special case: increase remainder / move it back to divisor / increase quotient
<<<<<- Decrease dividend
] End division loop
>>[<+>-] Add remainder back to divisor to get a useful 13
>[ Skip forward if quotient was 0
-[ Decrement quotient and skip forward if quotient was 1
-<<[-]>> Zero quotient and divisor if quotient was 2
]<<[<<->>-]>> Zero divisor and subtract 13 from copy if quotient was 1
]<<[<<+>>-] Zero divisor and add 13 to copy if quotient was 0
] End outer skip loop (jump to here if ((character minus 1)/32) was not 2 or 3)
<[-] Clear remainder from first division if second division was skipped
<.[-] Output ROT13ed character from copy and clear it
<-,+ Read next character
] End character reading loop
Daniel B. Cristofani gives this program to print the fibonacci numbers, noting that you will have to kill the program because it doesn’t terminate: