We discussed modular arithmetic in a previous exercise. In a comment on that exercise, Matthew asked what you can do when you have a fixed size integer datatype (say 64-bit unsigned integers) and a modulus that is close to the maximum. That’s a good question, which we will answer today. The answer is straight forward if the modulus is at least one bit less than the maximum, and rather trickier if it’s not. We’ll look at multiplication, but the other operations are all similar.

As long as the modulus is at least one bit less than the maximum, the solution is to split the numbers in low-bit and high-bit halves, then perform the arithmetic piecemeal, kind of like grade-school multiplication where you multiply by the one’s digit, then shift the sum and multiply by the ten’s digit, and so on, except that the “digits” are the size of the square root of the maximum number than can be represented in the integer datatype.

If m is within one bit of the maximum for the integer data type, things get messier; the basic answer is to split into three parts, compute the intermediate products, and recombine. But we won’t bother with that.

Your task is to write a function that performs modular multiplication without overflow. When you are finished, you are welcome to read or run a suggested solution, or to post your own solution or discuss the exercise in the comments below.

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