/* Programming With Prime Numbers */
/* http://programmingpraxis.files.wordpress.com/
   2012/09/programmingwithprimenumbers.pdf */

import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.BitSet;
import java.util.Random;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.math.BigInteger;
import java.lang.Exception;
import java.lang.Boolean;
 
class Main {
 
    public static LinkedList sieve(int n)
    {
        BitSet b = new BitSet(n);
        LinkedList ps = new LinkedList();
 
        b.set(0,n);
 
        for (int p=2; p<n; p++)
        {
            if (b.get(p))
            {
                ps.add(p);
                for (int i=p+p; i<n; i+=p)
                {
                    b.clear(i);
                }
            }
        }
 
        return ps;
    }

    public static LinkedList primes(int n)
    {
        if (n < 2)
        {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("must be greater than one");
        }

        int m = (n-1) / 2;
        BitSet b = new BitSet(m);
        b.set(0, m);

        int i = 0;
        int p = 3;
        LinkedList ps = new LinkedList();
        ps.add(2);

        while (p * p < n)
        {
            if (b.get(i))
            {
                ps.add(p);
                int j = 2*i*i + 6*i + 3;
                while (j < m)
                {
                    b.clear(j);
                    j = j + 2*i + 3;
                }
            }
            i += 1; p += 2;
        }

        while (i < m)
        {
            if (b.get(i))
            {
                ps.add(p);
            }
            i += 1; p += 2;
        }

        return ps;
    }
    
    public static Boolean tdPrime(BigInteger n)
    {
        BigInteger two = BigInteger.valueOf(2);
    
        if (n.compareTo(two) < 0)
        {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("must be greater than one");
        }

        if (n.mod(two).equals(BigInteger.ZERO))
        {
            return n.equals(two);
        }

        BigInteger d = BigInteger.valueOf(3);

        while (d.multiply(d).compareTo(n) <= 0)
        {
            if (n.mod(d).equals(BigInteger.ZERO))
            {
                return false;
            }
            d = d.add(two);
        }

        return true;
    }

    public static LinkedList tdFactors(BigInteger n)
    {
        BigInteger two = BigInteger.valueOf(2);
        LinkedList fs = new LinkedList();

        if (n.compareTo(two) < 0)
        {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("must be greater than one");
        }

        while (n.mod(two).equals(BigInteger.ZERO))
        {
            fs.add(two);
            n = n.divide(two);
        }

        if (n.compareTo(BigInteger.ONE) > 0)
        {
            BigInteger f = BigInteger.valueOf(3);
            while (f.multiply(f).compareTo(n) <= 0)
            {
                if (n.mod(f).equals(BigInteger.ZERO))
                {
                    fs.add(f);
                    n = n.divide(f);
                }
                else
                {
                    f = f.add(two);
                }
            }
            fs.add(n);
        }

        return fs;
    }

    private static Boolean isSpsp(BigInteger n, BigInteger a)
    {
        BigInteger two = BigInteger.valueOf(2);
        BigInteger n1 = n.subtract(BigInteger.ONE);
        BigInteger d = n1;
        int s = 0;

        while (d.mod(two).equals(BigInteger.ZERO))
        {
            d = d.divide(two);
            s += 1;
        }

        BigInteger t = a.modPow(d, n);

        if (t.equals(BigInteger.ONE) || t.equals(n1))
        {
            return true;
        }

        while (--s > 0)
        {
            t = t.multiply(t).mod(n);
            if (t.equals(n1))
            {
                return true;
            }
        }

        return false;
    }

    public static Boolean isPrime(BigInteger n)
    {
        Random r = new Random();
        BigInteger two = BigInteger.valueOf(2);
        BigInteger n3 = n.subtract(BigInteger.valueOf(3));
        BigInteger a;
        int k = 25;

        if (n.compareTo(two) < 0)
        {
            return false;
        }

        if (n.mod(two).equals(BigInteger.ZERO))
        {
            return n.equals(two);
        }

        while (k > 0)
        {
            a = new BigInteger(n.bitLength(), r).add(two);
            while (a.compareTo(n) >= 0)
            {
                a = new BigInteger(n.bitLength(), r).add(two);
            }

            if (! isSpsp(n, a))
            {
                return false;
            }

            k -= 1;
        }

        return true;
    }

    private static BigInteger rhoFactor(BigInteger n, BigInteger c)
    {
        BigInteger t = BigInteger.valueOf(2);
        BigInteger h = BigInteger.valueOf(2);
        BigInteger d = BigInteger.ONE;

        while (d.equals(BigInteger.ONE))
        {
            t = t.multiply(t).add(c).mod(n);
            h = h.multiply(h).add(c).mod(n);
            h = h.multiply(h).add(c).mod(n);
            d = t.subtract(h).gcd(n);
        }

        if (d.equals(n)) /* cycle */
        {
            return rhoFactor(n, c.add(BigInteger.ONE));
        }
        else if (isPrime(d)) /* success */
        {
            return d;
        }
        else /* found composite factor */
        {
            return rhoFactor(d, c.add(BigInteger.ONE));
        }
    }

    public static LinkedList rhoFactors(BigInteger n)
    {
        BigInteger f;
        BigInteger two = BigInteger.valueOf(2);
        LinkedList fs = new LinkedList();

        if (n.compareTo(two) < 0)
        {
            return fs;
        }

        while (n.mod(two).equals(BigInteger.ZERO))
        {
            n = n.divide(two);
            fs.add(two);
        }

        if (n.equals(BigInteger.ONE))
        {
            return fs;
        }

        while (! n.isProbablePrime(25))
        {
            f = rhoFactor(n, BigInteger.ONE);
            n = n.divide(f);
            fs.add(f);
        }

        fs.add(n);
        Collections.sort(fs);
        return fs;
    }
 
    public static void main (String[] args)
    {
        System.out.println(sieve(100));
        System.out.println(primes(100));
        System.out.println(primes(1000000).size());
        System.out.println(tdPrime(new BigInteger("600851475143")));
        System.out.println(tdFactors(new BigInteger("600851475143")));
        System.out.println(isPrime(new BigInteger("600851475143")));
        System.out.println(isPrime(new BigInteger("2305843009213693951")));
        System.out.println(rhoFactors(new BigInteger("600851475143")));
    }
 
}

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