## Goldbach’s Conjecture

### March 2, 2010

We present two solutions. The first solution generates a list of primes using the Sieve of Eratosthenes from a previous exercise, then for each prime checks if the other number is prime:

`(define (goldbach1 n)`

(let loop ((ps (primes n)))

(if (member (- n (car ps)) ps)

(list (car ps) (- n (car ps)))

(loop (cdr ps)))))

In most cases, one of the two primes is quite small. For instance, considering all the even primes to a million, only 484 have both primes greater than 200, and the maximum small-prime occurs at 503222 = 523 + 502699. We can exploit that fact to make a function that works much faster for large numbers:

`(define (goldbach2 n)`

(let ((ps '(2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 53 59 61

67 71 73 79 83 89 97 101 103 107 109 113 127 131 137

139 149 151 157 163 167 173 179 181 191 193 197 199)))

(let loop ((ps ps))

(cond ((null? ps)

(let loop ((p 211))

(cond ((< n p) (error 'goldbach "conjecture fails"))

((and (prime? p) (prime? (- n p))) (list p (- n p)))

(else (loop (+ p 2))))))

((prime? (- n (car ps)))

(list (car ps) (- n (car ps))))

(else (loop (cdr ps)))))))

Here we test each prime less than 200. If we still haven’t found the two primes, we start from 211 (the first prime larger than 200), test for primality using the Baillie-Wagstaff test from a previous exercise, test the other number for primality, and either report success or add two and loop. `Goldbach2`

is faster than `goldbach1`

because we don’t need to generate and store the list of primes, most of which are never used.

Here are some examples:

`> (goldbach1 28))`

(5 23)

> (goldbach2 28)

(5 23)

> (goldbach2 986332)

(353 985979)

You can run the program at http://programmingpraxis.codepad.org/B0jzdRps.

[…] Praxis – Goldbach’s Conjecture By Remco Niemeijer In today’s Programming Praxis problem we have to test Golbach’s conjecture that every even number […]

My Haskell solution (see http://bonsaicode.wordpress.com/2010/03/02/programming-praxis-goldbach%E2%80%99s-conjecture/ for a version with comments):

Here’s my quick and naive C implementation.

[…] Today’s Praxis is on the Goldbach Conjecture which states that any even number greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes. The challenge is to write a program that will take in an even number, and spit out the two primes that can be added together to make it. […]

D’oh! The prime flags of the sieve should obviously be bool, and not ulong. Way to waste memory there, Jason. :)

Here’s a managed code solution. No sieve is used, because it seemed like that would be a waste in most cases. A more optimized IsPrime() function could be swapped in.

public static class Goldbach

{

private static List primes = new List() { 2, 3 };

public static void GetGoldbachPrimes(int value, out int prime1, out int prime2)

{

Debug.Assert(value > 2 && value % 2 == 0, “value > 2 && value % 2 == 0”);

if (value <= 2 || value % 2 != 0)

{

throw new ArgumentException("value must be even number greater than 2", "value");

}

foreach (var prime in GetPrimes())

{

int difference = value – prime;

if (IsPrime(difference))

{

prime1 = prime;

prime2 = difference;

return;

}

}

throw new InvalidOperationException("Primes could not be found");

}

private static IEnumerable GetPrimes()

{

for (int i = 0; i < primes.Count; i++)

{

yield return primes[i];

}

for (int i = primes[primes.Count – 1] + 2; i < int.MaxValue; i += 2)

{

if (IsPrime(i))

{

primes.Add(i);

yield return i;

}

}

}

private static bool IsPrime(int value)

{

if (value = 0)

{

return true;

}

int sqrt = Convert.ToInt32(Math.Ceiling(Math.Sqrt(value)));

for (int i = 3; i <= sqrt; i += 2)

{

if (value % i == 0)

{

return false;

}

}

return true;

}

}

I just came across this site and had done some related work with GC, in terms of symmetric prime pair solutions

eg for 24, we have (11/13), (7/17),(5/19) as solutions, where each pair is symmetric about N/2=12

it uses Pari/GP built-in function is ispseudoprime

mirrors(N)=

{

\\ N is the number of interest to find symmetric prime pairs

\\ written as pari/GP script

i=1;cnt=0;Q1=999;

if(N%2!=0|N5! “);return(2) );

print(“selected N = “,N);

while(Q1>5,

Q1=N-i;Q2=N+i;

if(ispseudoprime(Q1)&&ispseudoprime(Q2),

\\## print(” mirror pair at “,Q1,” / “,Q2); \\disable for speed or if N> BB1

cnt++ ); \\ end IF

i=i+2; \\ skip multiples if 5! for speed

if(i%5==0,i=i+2) \\ BB1

); \\ end WHILE

print(“# pairs found = “,cnt);

print(“other candidate N: 6,12,30,60,180,210,360,420,1260,2310,2520,4620,”);

return(0);

}

Two python versions.

For many values of n, it is faster to generate all the primes less than n than it is to generate each prime (p) up to n/2 and test whether n-p is prime. So the second routine runs faster than the first.

Reuses is_prime and primes_to from earlier problems.

Not as elegant but I think this will do for now.

Sample output:

ruby solution (http://codepad.org/So9bEmlF)

import math

from random import choice

from fibonacci_conjecture import is_perfect_square, is_prime # module here -> https://programmingpraxis.com/2015/01/23/fibonacci-conjecture/#comment-50883

def is_even(x):

return x%2==0

def gc_find_primes(x, printall=False):

if not is_even(x): return None

if x<=2: return None

goldbach_pairs = []

for i in range(x):

if is_prime(i) and is_prime(x-i):

goldbach_pairs.append((i, x-i))

if printall: return goldbach_pairs[:len(goldbach_pairs)/2]

else: return choice(goldbach_pairs)

tag typo in previous comment