## SUM And XOR

### April 1, 2016

The naive solution iterates over *a* and *b* up to *s*, which is quadratic. But a little algebra makes an easy linear solution. Given

s = a + b x = a ^ b

then

x = (s - b) ^ b

Since *s* and *x* are known, check all integers *b* from 0 to *s* and report those that work:

(define (sum-xor s x) (list-of (list (- s b) b) (b range 1 s) (= x (bitwise-xor (- s b) b))))

> (sum-xor 9 5) ((7 2) (6 3) (3 6) (2 7))

A simple optimization works half-way through the range, generating both a pair and its conjugate whenever it finds a suitable *b*, but we won’t bother.

We used list comprehensions from the Standard Prelude. You can run the program at http://ideone.com/eDfLxn.

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Actually you only have to loop through the range 0 to s/2 since if (a,b) is a solution, then (b,a) is a solution

Hard to resist a nice bit-twiddling challenge: s and x differ just at positions where there is a carry in from the right, and x tells us where the two numbers differ: if the number are the same at a particular bit position, then there is a carry just if they are both 1, if both 0, there can be no carry. If the digits are different at a given position, then because addition and xor are symmetric, we can have 0 and 1 either way round in the original numbers, regardless of the carries. So, the solutions have a certain number of bits fixed, and we can have all possible combinations of the other bits, so we can just count through those combinations: if a is a possible value, we can find the next possible value by setting all fixed bits to 1, incrementing, then setting the fixed bits back to their correct values. Maybe some code is clearer:

Solutions fast and slow in Racket.

For each x=2^k :

i) a b = a + 2^k

s = a + a + 2^k = 2a + 2^k

a = (s – 2^k)/2

ii) a >= 2^k => b = a – 2^k

s = a + a – 2^k = 2a – 2^k

a = (s + 2^k)/2

This is true for each bit of x => so a = (s +/- all combinations of 2^k of x)/2 or there is no result

//————————————————————————–

#include

//————————————————————————–

int main(int argn, char *argv[]) {

if ( argn != 3 ) {

printf(“usage: %s

~~\n\n”, argv[0]);~~return 1; //==========================================================>

}

int s = atoi(argv[1]);

int x = atoi(argv[2]);

printf(“s=%d x=%d\n:\n”, s, x);

int i, j;

int n;

int m;

int b[16];

for ( i = 0, m = 1, n = 0;

i m;

i++, m <<= 1

) {

if ( x & m ) {

b[n] = m;

n++;

}

}

for ( i = 0;

i < (1 << n);

i++

) {

int a = s;

for ( j = 0, m = 1;

j < n;

j++, m <>= 1;

int b = s – a;

if ( (a ^ b) != x ) {

//printf(“a=%d b=%d s=%d x=%d FALSE\n”, a, b, a + b, a ^ b);

printf(“no results (sorry)\n”);

return 1; //========================================================>

}

~~return 0;~~}

@J.Fossy: That looks interesting but it’s all got a bit garbled, you might want to have a look at https://en.support.wordpress.com/code/posting-source-code/

In c#:

JS:

thanks for posting problems, good exercise