Let’s Make A Deal!

July 24, 2009

Let’s Make A Deal! was a television game show that originated in the United States in the 1960s and has since been produced throughout the world. In one of the games, prizes were placed behind three doors, and the contestant was asked to pick a door; one door hid an automobile, the other two doors hid goats. Then the host, who knows what is behind the doors, opened one of the doors that the contestant did not pick, revealing in every case a goat, and asks if you want to switch doors. Is it to your advantage to switch your choice of doors?

Your task is to write a program that simulates a large number of games and determines whether or not it is to your advantage to switch doors. What are the odds that you will win the automobile by switching? When you are finished, you are welcome to read or run a suggested solution, or to post your solution or discuss the exercise in the comments below.


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10 Responses to “Let’s Make A Deal!”

  1. cwbowron said
    #lang scheme
    (define DOOR-COUNT 3)
    (define (car? n lst) (eq? (list-ref lst n) 'car))
    (define (get-door-layout n)
      (let loop ([n n] [doors (list)])
          [(= 0 n) doors]
          [(or (member 'car doors)
               (not (= 0 (random n))))
           (loop (sub1 n) (cons 'goat doors))]
           (loop (sub1 n) (cons 'car doors))])))
    (define (get-random-door door-count criteria-function)
      (let ([door (random door-count)])
        (if (criteria-function door) 
            (get-random-door door-count criteria-function))))
    (define (get-revealed-door doors contestant-selection)
      (get-random-door (length doors) 
                       (lambda (n)
                         (and (not (= n contestant-selection))
                              (eq? (list-ref doors n) 'goat)))))
    (define (get-switch-door door-count unavailable-doors)
      (get-random-door door-count (lambda (n) (not (member n unavailable-doors)))))
    (define (make-a-deal n (show-debug-info #f))
      (let ([success-count-stick 0]
            [success-count-switch 0])
        (for ((trial (in-range n)))
          (let ([doors (get-door-layout DOOR-COUNT)]
                [selected-door (random DOOR-COUNT)])
            (let ([revealed-door (get-revealed-door doors selected-door)])
              (let ([selected-door-switch (get-switch-door DOOR-COUNT (list selected-door revealed-door))])
                (when show-debug-info
                  (printf "DOORS: ~A~%" doors)
                  (printf "SELECTED DOOR: ~A~%" selected-door)
                  (printf "REVEALED DOOR: ~A~%" revealed-door)
                  (printf "SWITCH DOOR: ~A~%" selected-door-switch))
                (cond [(car? selected-door doors)
                       (set! success-count-stick (add1 success-count-stick))]
                      [(car? selected-door-switch doors)
                       (set! success-count-switch (add1 success-count-switch))])))))
        (printf "Success Rate of Sticking:  ~A%~%" (exact->inexact (* 100 (/ success-count-stick n))))
        (printf "Success Rate of Switching: ~A%~%" (exact->inexact (* 100 (/ success-count-switch n))))
        (if (> success-count-switch success-count-stick)
            (printf "Better off Switching~%")
            (printf "Better off Sticking~%"))))
    (make-a-deal 100000)
  2. Jamie Hope said

    I already knew that the correct answer is the probability of winning by switching is 2/3, but:

    (import (rnrs)
            (srfi :27))
    (define (create-game) ; false = goat, true = car
      (let ((v (make-vector 3 #f)))
        (vector-set! v (random-integer 3) #t)
    (define (player-choice) (random-integer 3))
    (define (host-choice g p) ; host always chooses a goat
      (case p
        ((0) (if (vector-ref g 1) 2 1))
        ((1) (if (vector-ref g 0) 2 0))
        ((2) (if (vector-ref g 0) 1 0))))
    (define (switch p h)
      (case (+ p h)
        ((1) 2)
        ((2) 1)
        ((3) 0)))
    (define (run-test n)
      (let loop ((wins 0) (total 0))
        (if (= total n) (/ wins total)
            (let* ((g (create-game))
                   (p (player-choice))
                   (h (host-choice g p))
                   (s (switch p h)))
              (if (vector-ref g s)
                  (loop (+ wins 1) (+ total 1))
                  (loop wins (+ total 1)))))))
    (display (inexact (run-test 1000000)))

    => 0.66756

  3. Mark VandeWettering KF6KYI said

    Ugly, but it works.

    #!/usr/bin/env python
    # code for the monty hall problem
    # written by Mark VandeWettering as a challenge on
    # the programming praxis website.
    import random
    def trial(switch=False):
            # pick a random door...
            door = random.randint(1, 3)
            guess = random.randint(1, 3)
            if not switch:
                return door == guess
                # slightly clever, but the only way that you
                # lose is if you were lucky enough (or unlucky
                # enough) to guess the right door in the first
                # place.   This gives away the entire problem.
                return door != guess
    cnt_noswitch = 0
    cnt_switch = 0
    for x in range(NTRIALS):
        if trial():
            cnt_noswitch = cnt_noswitch + 1
        if trial(switch=True):
            cnt_switch = cnt_switch + 1
    print "By not switching, you won %d/%d rounds." % (cnt_noswitch, NTRIALS)
    print "By switching, you won %d/%d rounds." % (cnt_switch, NTRIALS)
    if cnt_switch > cnt_noswitch:
            print "It appears you should switch."
            print "It appears you should not switch."
  4. I suggest also reading a nice treatment of this exact problem in “The man who loved only numbers” by Paul Hoffman.

  5. Brian Everett said

    I’m just now learning Python and figured I’d play around with its list capabilities for this one…

    Originally I was using list comprehension to generate a list of random numbers (to indicate which door the car is behind) and keeping the contestant’s choice constant (always picking door number 1), but I realized it might be slightly faster to randomize the contestant’s choice and assume the car is always located behind door number 1 – simply using the list as a looping mechanism.

    import random
    trials = 100000
    print "Switching will win: %2.2f%% of the time" % (len(filter(lambda trial: random.randint(1, 3) != 1, xrange(trials))) / float(trials) * 100)
  6. […] Let’s Make A Deal! « Programming Praxis. […]

  7. Greg R said

    I made an attempt in PL/SQL (Oracle). I made the number of doors configurable (assuming that the host opens all doors except yours or the prize, or a random single door if you have chosen the prize door initially).

      Runs  integer := 10000;
      Doors integer := 3;
      function RunMonteHaul
      Runs    in  integer,
      MaxDoor in  integer,
      Swap    in  boolean
      return integer
        Prize     integer;
        OtherDoor integer;
        MyDoor    integer;
        Wins      integer := 0;
        i integer;
        j integer;
        for i in 1 .. Runs loop
          Prize := dbms_random.value(1,MaxDoor);
          MyDoor := dbms_random.value(1,MaxDoor);
          if Prize = MyDoor then
            if Prize = MaxDoor then
              OtherDoor := 1;
              OtherDoor := MaxDoor;
            end if;
            OtherDoor := Prize;
          end if;
          if Swap then
            MyDoor := OtherDoor;
          end if;
          if MyDoor = Prize then
            Wins := Wins + 1;
          end if;
        end loop;
        return Wins;
      end RunMonteHaul;
        dbms_output.put_line('Runs  ' || Runs);
        dbms_output.put_line('Doors ' || Doors);
        dbms_output.put_line('Swap Wins    ' || RunMonteHaul(Runs,Doors,true));
        dbms_output.put_line('No Swap Wins ' || RunMonteHaul(Runs,Doors,false));

    This produces the output

    Runs  10000
    Doors 3
    Swap Wins    6290
    No Swap Wins 3725
    Runs  10000
    Doors 10000
    Swap Wins    9999
    No Swap Wins 1
  8. Diego Giuliani said
    # Monty Hall Paradox simulation / Let's make a deal
    # Simulates a number of games and output the total number of wins and looses,
    # and the percentage of each, to determine if switching doors after the host has opened one
    # is a better option.
    from random import random,randint
    def scrambleDoors(doors):
        Simulates the scramble of doors by choosing one to contain a Car instead of a Goat
        doors[randint(1,3)] = "Car"
        return doors
    def pick():
        Choose a door between 1 and 3
        return int(random() * 100) % 3 + 1
    def openDoor(door_list,door):
        The host opens a door, wich must not reveal the price, and also is not the one the player has choosen    
        return [i for i in door_list.keys() if (door_list[i] != "Car") & (i != door)][0]
    def switchDoor(door_list,door):
        return [i for i in door_list.keys() if i != door]
    def play():   
       # 1 - Scramble doors   
       doors = scrambleDoors({1:"Goat",2:"Goat",3:"Goat"})
       # 2 - Pick a door
       door = pick()
       # 3 - Open a door, and remove it from door list 
       od = openDoor(doors,door)
       del doors[od]
       # 4 - Switch door
       newDoor = switchDoor(doors,door)
       # 5 - Won?
       return doors[newDoor[0]] == "Car"
    def game(n = 100):    
        n: Number of games to simulate
        win = 0
        loose = 0
        for i in range(0,n):
            if (play()):
                win +=1
                loose += 1
        porcWin = (float(win) / n) *  100
        porcLoose = (float(loose) / n) *  100
        print """
            Runs  : % s
            Win   : %s  Percentage win  : %s
            Loose : %s  Percentage Loose: %s
            """ % (n,win,porcWin, loose,porcLoose)

    Which produces the following output

    Runs  : 1000
    Win   : 680  Percentage win  : 68.0
    Loose : 320  Percentage Loose: 32.0
  9. princess83 said

    Yes, but when the game was played, did the host always open a door? Or did the host, for example, have the discretion to let the original choice go through. Unless we know this, it is meaningless to claim that we know the best strategy for the player.

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