## Twin Primes

### April 17, 2012

Pairs of prime numbers that differ by two are known as *twin primes*: (3,5), (5,7), (11,13), (17,19), (29,31), (41,43), (59,61), (71,73), …. Sometimes the list is given by the lowest number in the pair (A001359: 3, 5, 11, 17, 29, 41, 59, 71, …), sometimes by the highest number in the pair (A006512: 5, 7, 13, 19, 31, 43, 61, 73, …), sometimes by the number in between (A014574: 4, 6, 12, 18, 30, 42, 60, 72, …), and sometimes just as a list of primes (A001097: 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 29, 31, 41, 43, 59, 61, 71, 73, …). All twin primes have the form 6*k*±1.

It is simple and fast to compute the twin primes less than *n* by a variant of the Sieve of Eratosthenes. The sieving primes are the primes less than the square root of *n*, excluding 2 and 3 which are not of the form 6*k*±1. In the first step, the primes of the form 6*k*−1 are sieved; first make a bitarray for the numbers 5, 11, 17, 23, 29, …, then, for each sieving prime *p*, find the smallest multiple of the prime in the list, strike it off the list, and strike each *p*th number off the list as well. In the second step, the primes of the form 6*k*+1 are sieved; first make a bitarray for the numbers 7, 13, 19, 25, 31, …, then, for each sieving prime *p*, find the smallest multiple of the prime in the list, strike it off the list, and strike each *p*th number off the list as well. In the third step, sweep through the pair of bitarrays and collect twin primes for each remaining pair of corresponding bitarray elements.

The smallest multiple of a prime *p* of the form 6*k*−1 is the modular inverse of 6 mod *p*; the smallest multiple of a prime *p* of the form 6*k*+1 is the modular inverse of −6 mod *p*. Be sure not to strike the prime *p*. We discussed the modular inverse in a previous exercise.

An alternative method to compute twin primes is to use the normal Sieve of Eratosthenes to compute the primes less than *n*, then sweep through the list comparing each prime to its successor. But the algorithm given above is faster, about twice as fast, because the two bitarrays are shorter than the single bitarray of the normal Sieve of Eratosthenes.

Your task is to write a function that finds the twin primes less than a given input *n*. When you are finished, you are welcome to read or run a suggested solution, or to post your own solution or discuss the exercise in the comments below.

Perl solution, lots of code

Solved using Factor.

: twin-primes-upto ( n — seq )

primes-upto 2 <clumps> [ first2 – 2 = not ] filter ;

http://re-factor.blogspot.com/2012/04/twin-primes.html

#include

#include

int primecheck(int);

void twinprime(int);

void main() {

int number;

clrscr();

printf(“Enter the MAximum number\n”);

scanf(“%d”,&number);

twinprime(number);

printf(“\nThank You!!”);

getch();

}

int primecheck(int prime) {

int i,flag=1;

for(i=2;i<=(prime/2);i++) {

if(prime%i==0) {

flag=0;

return flag;

}

}

return flag;

}

void twinprime(int max) {

int i,j;

for(i=2;i<=(max-2);i++) {

if(primecheck(i)==1) {

if(primecheck(i+2)==1) {

printf("Twin primes are :%d %d\n",i,i+2);

}

}

}

}

Sorry, at work, so syntax might be appalling but off the top of my head I thought something like this idea work:

(warning may contain java-ish-ness)

int[] primeArray;

//find the primes less than N and by checking the usual does it divide by anything except 1 and itself, then add these to an array

for(int i = 3; i < n; i++){

int countOfDivisions = 0;

for(t = 2; t < i – 1; t++){

if((i.toNum() % t.toNum()) == 0){ //convert to something with decimals and mod that bad boy

countOfDivisions++;

}

}

if(countOfDivs == 0)

int.push(i); //add, push, attach, whatever

}

//cycle through the array of primes found and print out the pairs, length – 2 to stay in array but check the position after i

for(int i = 0; i < primeArray.length – 2; i++){

if(primeArray[i + 1] – primeArray[i] == 2){

System.out.println(primeArray[i] + ", " + primeArray[i + 1]);

}

}

I don’t mean to be a prude, but all other solutions posted on here completely disregard the proposed algorithm in the exercise description. Instead, they are either filtering the standard prime sieve, or repeatedly doing trial division. Both of these methods are kinda missing the point..

Here’s my solution in Python:

def twinPrimes(n):

#list odd numbers

odd = []

a = 3

while a <= n:

odd.append(a)

a = a + 2

#list prime numbers via sieve of eratosthenes

for p in odd:

q = 2*p

while p <= odd[-1]:

p = p + q

if p in odd:

odd.remove(p)

`#odd now contains all prime numbers less than or equal to n`

for i in odd:

if i + 2 in odd:

print i, i + 2

Guys, can somebody tell me how to properly insert code here. Thanks! :)